All posts by LincolnPaine

About LincolnPaine

I am a maritime historian, author, and editor. The Sea & Civilization: A Maritime History of the World will be published by Alfred A. Knopf in October.

USS Texas (BB–35)

This photograph by Navy Department photographer Burnell Poole shows the USS Texas (BB–35) in drydock at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, ca. 1918. Commissioned in 1914, two years later she became the first U.S. battleship to mount anti-aircraft guns and and 1919, she was the first U.S. battleship to launch an aircraft. A veteran of both world wars, the 573-foot-long battleship became a memorial on the Houston Ship Channel in LaPorte, Texas. Credit: Photo by Burnell Poole, courtesy of the family of Burnell Poole.

A Selection of Online Short Videos

The Shoals of Herring (1972)

A documentary film based on a 1950s Radio Ballad called `Singing the Fishing’ by Ewan McColl, Peggy Seeger and Charles Parker, about the rise and decline of the herring industry on the east coast of Scotland and East Anglia. Contemporary footage of the fishermen at work is intercut with interviews and archive photos, clips from John Greirson’s Drifters, Harry Watts’ North Sea, and Campbell Harper’s Calling Herring. Traditional folk songs sre used throughout. This documentary is available in five parts at  http://www.youtube.com/user/RadioBalladsFilms/feed.

A1 at Lloyds (1942)
The important role played by Lloyd’s of London in world shipping, using the ‘100 A1’ rated S.S. Armadillo as an example. http://film.britishcouncil.org/a1-at-lloyds

Cargoes (1940)
This short follows the S.S. Ionian as she delivers her cargo around the Mediterranean – her final peacetime journey. 9:06. http://film.britishcouncil.org/cargoes
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Attitudes and Latitudes: At Sea in a World of Words

Attitudes and Latitudes: At Sea in a World of Words

Lincoln Paine

An address to the O’Gara Honor Society of the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, N.Y., September 22, 2011.

Good afternoon. Many thanks for turning out for this honors class lecture. For me this week is something of a homecoming because my first boss was Frank Braynard, the founder and motive force behind this museum and its collection. I first worked for Frank as a volunteer for OpSail ’76, the tall ships parade held to celebrate the U.S. bicentennial and which thanks in large part to his generous and open spirit was watched live by six million people. I worked for him again on Harbor Festival ’79, a parade of working vessels from cruise ships and box ships to dredges and tugs.

Convincing shipping executives to divert their vessels a few miles up the Hudson for a small entertainment might seem a hopeless task. But it was Frank’s genius to convince people Continue reading

Beyond the Dead White Whales: Literature of the Sea and Maritime History

International Journal of Maritime History, XXII, No. 1 (June 2010), 205-228.[1]

In the course of researching a maritime history of the world, I became aware of a vastly greater body of maritime literature than the armchair sailor – or armchair historian – usually encounters. I wondered whether this lack of awareness was due to my own want of initiative in recognizing or seeking out foreign works, or whether the corpus of maritime literature upon which historians, teachers and compilers of anthologies draw was too narrowly circumscribed. In an effort to find an answer, I compared the syllabi of more than two dozen courses that focussed on the literature of the sea. As the findings suggest, it is apparent that in the United States and elsewhere what passes for “maritime literature” is almost exclusively the work of English and American authors of the past two centuries. Nor is this bias limited to the classroom. Of the more than 200 selections from the three best-known anthologies of maritime literature of the past two decades – The Oxford Book of the Sea, The Oxford Book of Sea Stories, and The Faber Book of Tales of the Sea – only three were of non-English origin.[2]

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A Pax Upon You

The following article was written in the spring of 2003, on the eve of the United States’ invasion of Iraq, and published in Clio’s Psyche 10:3 (Dec. 2003): 91-97. A central if unstated premise of the article is that the ability of the United States to project power worldwide proceeds from its overwhelming naval power. Thus the historical parallels, or preludes, are drawn from empires founded on naval and maritime power.
(“A pox upon you” is a sixteenth-century English curse meaning “May you get syphilis.” Pax is the Latin word for peace, not the clap.)
A Pax Upon You: Preludes and Perils of American Imperialism

The United States’ invasion of Iraq has given rise to a long overdue debate about whether the Republic has become an empire and, if so, of what kind. Those who view the United States as an imperial power usually point to the Roman or British empires as relevant or even appropriate models, but their comparisons raise a number of objections. In the first place, however we choose to reinterpret Roman or British forms of imperial governance and law in hindsight, the ethical and ideological foundations of their empires are antithetical to the privileges, responsibilities, and freedoms embodied in the United States Constitution. There are echoes of Roman and British rule in the United States today, but they are—or should be—as faint as cosmic echoes of the big bang. A second objection is that while neo-imperialists rummage through history for precedents that might look good in the light of 21st-century sensibilities, today’s architects of an imperial United States simultaneously flatter themselves with the novelty of their ideas. It takes a fatal arrogance to imagine that the Bush administration invented the pre-emptive use of brute force in defense of national interests, the so-called “Bush Doctrine.” Mix this with the questionable belief that Western democracy is the natural state of mankind and you have all the makings of a Pax Americana.

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Maritime history bibliographies

One of the main features of this site is the bibliographies drawn from the research for a forthcoming maritime history of the world. The list is not intended to be exhaustive, but recommendations are welcome.

Chapter 1: The Rivers and Seas of Ancient Egypt

Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest. New York, Russell & Russell, 1962.

Casson, Lionel. The Ancient Mariners: Seafarers and Sea Fighters of the Mediterranean in Ancient Times. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

El-Sayed, Sayed Z. “Queen Hatshepsut’s Expedition to the Land of Punt: The First Oceanographic Cruise?” Quarterdeck 3:1 (Spring 1995). Available online.

Habachi, Labib. “Two Graffiti at Sehel from the Reign of Queen Hatshepsut.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 16 (1957): 880-104.

Herodotus. The Histories. Trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt. New York: Penguin, 1996.

Hornell, James. Water Transport: Origins and Early Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1946.

Hydrographer of the Navy. Ocean Passages for the World. 2nd ed. London: Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 1950.

Jenkins, Nancy. The Boat beneath the Pyramid: King Cheops’ Royal Ship. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980.

Johnstone, Paul. The Sea-craft of Prehistory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

Landström, Björn. Ships of the Pharaohs: 4,000 Years of Egyptian Shipbuilding. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1970.

Lipke, Paul. The Royal Ship of Cheops: A Retrospective Account of the Discovery, Restoration and Reconstruction. Based on Interviews with Hag Ahmed Youssef Moustafa. Oxford: B.A.R., 1984.

Marfoe, Leon. “Cedar Forest to Silver Mountain: Social Change and the Development of Long-Distance Trade in Early Near Eastern Societies.” In Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, edited by Michael Rowlands, et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Meiggs, Russell. Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

O’Connor, David. “Boat Graves and Pyramid Origins: New Discoveries at Abydos.” Expedition 33 (1991) 3:5-17.

O’Connor, David. “The Social and Economic Organization of Ancient Egyptian Temples.” In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, edited by Jack M. Sasson, et al., vol. 1, pp. 319-22. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995.

Pierce, Richard. “After 5,000 year voyage, world’s oldest built boats deliver: Archeologists’ first look confirms existence of earliest royal boats at Abydos.” Available online.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Trans. H. Rackham. 10 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938-1963.

Pritchard, James B. The Ancient Near East. Vol. I, An Anthology of Text and Pictures. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958.

Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Redford, Donald B. The Wars in Syria and Palestine of Thutmose III. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Simpson, William Kelly, ed. The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions and Poetry. Trans. R.O. Faulkner, E.F. Wente, Jr., and W. K. Simpson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.

Theophrastus. Enquiry into Plants. Trans. Sir Arthur Hort. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.

Wachsmann, Shelley. Seagoing Ships & Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.

Warburton, David. Egypt and the Near East: Politics in the Bronze Age. Neuchatel-Paris: Recherches et Publications, 2001.

Ward, Cheryl A. Sacred and Secular: Ancient Egyptian Ships and Boats. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America and Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 2000.

Wehausen, J.V., A. Mansour, and F. Stross. “The Colossi of Memnon and Egyptian Barges.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 17 (1988): 295-310.

Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. London: Routledge, 1999.

Chapter 2—Mesopotamia, the Indian Ocean and the Eastern Mediterranean

Casson, Lionel. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Cleuziou, Serge, and Maurizio Tosi. “Black Boats of Magan: Some Thoughts on Bronze-Age Water Transport in Oman and Beyond from the Impressed Bitumen Slabs of Ra’s al-Junayz.” In South Asian Archaeology 1993 II, edited by A. Parpola and P. Koskikallio. Helsinki: AASF Ser. B 271: 745-61.

Deloche, Jean. “Geographical Considerations in the Localization of Ancient Sea-Ports of India” (1983). In Trade in Early India, edited by Ranabir Chakravarti. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Doumas, Christos. Wall-Paintings of Thera. Athens: Thera Foundation, 1992.

Ferry, David, trans. Gilgamesh: A New Rendering in English Verse. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1993.

Gadd, C.J. “The Dynasty of Agade and the Gutian Invasion.” In I.E.S. Edwards, et al., eds. Cambridge Ancient History. 3rd ed. Vol. 1, pt. 2, Early History of the Middle East. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Ghosh, A., ed. An Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology. Vol. 2, A Gazetteer of Explored and Excavated Sites in India. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1990.

Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. 1954. New ed., New York: Penguin, 1996.

Hornell, James. Water Transport Origins and Early Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1946.

Kuhrt, Amélie. The Ancient Near East. 2 vols. New ed. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Leshnik, Lawrence S. “The Harappan ‘Port’ at Lothal: Another View.” In Ancient Cities of the Indus, edited by Gregory L. Possehl. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 1979.

Oppenheim, A. Leo, trans. Letters from Mesopotamia: Official, Business, and Private Letters on Clay Tablets from Two Millennia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Oppenheim, A. Leo. “The Seafaring Merchants of Ur.” In Ancient Cities of the Indus, edited by Gregory L. Possehl. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 1979.

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. 10 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938-1963.

Potts, D.T. Arabian Gulf in Antiquity. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Potts, D.T. Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Potts, D.T. “Watercraft of the Lower Sea.” In Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens: Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer, 559-71. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1995.

Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Sandars N.K. The Sea Peoples: Warriors of the Ancient Mediterranean, 1250-1150 B.C. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985.

Sherratt, S., ed. The Wall Paintings of Thera: Proceedings of the First International Symposium. 2 vols. Athens: Thera Foundation, 2000.

Simpson, William Kelly, ed. The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions and Poetry. Translated by R.O. Faulkner et al. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.

Thucydides. The Peloponnesian War. Translated by Rex Warner. New York: Penguin, 1954.

U.S. Coast Guard. Navigation Rules International—Inland. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard, 2003.

Vosmer, Tom. “Building the Reed-boat Prototype: Problems, Solutions, and Implications for the Organization and Structure of Third-Millennium Shipbuilding.” Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 31 (2001): 235-39

Vosmer, Tom. “The Magan Boat Project: A Process of Discovery, A Discovery of Process.” Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 33 (2003): 49-58.

Vosmer, Tom. “Ships in the Ancient Arabian Sea: The Development of a Hypothetical Reed Boat Model.” Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 30 (2000): 235-42.

Wachsmann, Shelley. Seagoing Ships & Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.

Chapter 3: Phoenicians, Greeks and the Mediterranean, 10th to 4th centuries BCE

Aeschylus. The Suppliant Maidens, The Persians, Seven Against Thebes, Prometheus Bound. Translated by Seth G. Bernadete and David Grene. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Apollonios Rhodios. The Argonautika: The Story of Jason and the Quest for the Golden Fleece. Translated by Peter Green. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Aristophanes. Lysistrata & Other Plays: The Acharnians, The Clouds, Lysistrata. Translated by Alan H. Sommerstein. Revd. ed. New York: Penguin, 2003.

Aristotle. Politics. In The Complete Works of Aristotle, edited by Jonathan Barnes. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Aubet, Maria Eugenia. The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. Translated by Mary Turton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Aulus Gellius. Attic Nights. Translated by John C. Rolfe. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Austin, M.M., and P. Vidal-Naquet. Economic and Social History of Ancient Greece: An Introduction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Avienus, Rufus Festus. Ora Maritima (Description of the Seacoast from Brittany to Marseilles). J.P. Murphy. Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1977.

Casson, Lionel. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Cunliffe, Barry W. Facing the Ocean: The Atlantic and its People 8000 BC-AD 1500. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Demosthenes. Against Meidias…. Translated by J.H. Vince. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935.

Green, Peter. The Greco-Persian Wars. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. 1954. New ed., New York: Penguin, 1996.

Holy Bible (especially Ezekiel, Isaiah)

Homer. The Iliad. Translated by Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 1990.

Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 1996.

Isserlin, B.S.J. et al. “The Canal of Xerxes: Investigations in 1993-94.” Annual of the British School at Athens 91 (Dec. 1996): 329-40. The Canal of Xerxes in Northern Greece: Explorations 1991-2001. Available online.

Lloyd, Alan B. “Necho and the Red Sea: Some Considerations.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 63 (1977): 142-55.

McGregor, Malcolm F. The Athenians and Their Empire. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1987.

Millett, Paul. “Maritime Loans and the Structure of Credit in Fourth-Century Athens.” In Trade in the Ancient Economy, edited by Peter Garnsey, Keith Hopkins, and C.R. Whittaker. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Morrison, J.S., and J.F. Coates. The Athenian Trireme: The History and Reconstruction of an Ancient Greek Warship. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Murray, Oswyn. Early Greece. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Patai, Raphael. The Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princteon University Press, 1998.

Pausanias. Description of Greece. Translated by W.H.S. Jones. 5 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1918-1971.

Plato. The Laws. Translated by A.E. Taylor. In The Collected Dialogues of Plato, edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. New York: Pantheon, 1961.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. 10 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938-1963.

Powell, Barry B. Homer. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2004.

Redmount, Carol. “The Wadi Tumilat and the Canal of the Pharaohs.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 54 (1994): 127-35.

Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. 3rd ed. New York: Penguin, 1992.

Strauss, Barry. Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece—and Western Civilization. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004.

Tandy, David W. Warriors into Traders: The Power of the Market in Early Greece. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. “Did the Greeks go to Cholcis for Metals?” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 14 (1995): 307-31.

Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. “Greek Penetration of the Black Sea.” In The Archaeology of Greek Colonisation: Essays Dedicated to John Boardman, edited by Gocha R. Tsteskhladze and F. de Angelis, 111-35. Oxford: Oxford University Community for Archaeology, 1994.

Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. “Trade on the Black Sea in the Archaic and Classical Periods.” In Trade, Traders and the Ancient City, edited by H. Parkins & C. Smith, 52-74. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Wallinga, H.T. “The Trireme and History.” Mnemosyne 43 (1990): 132-49.

Werner, Walter. “The Largest Ship Trackway in Ancient Times: The Diolkos of the Isthmus of Corinth, Greece, and Early Attempts to build a Canal.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology26:2 (1997): 98-119.

Whitehead, Ian. “The Periplous.” Greece and Rome 34:2 (1987): 78-85.

Xenophon. A History of My Times. Translated by Rex Warner. New York: Penguin, 1979.

Chapter 4: Carthage, Rome and the Mediterranean

Appian. Roman History. Translated by Horace White. 4 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Aristotle. On the Art of Poetry. In Classical Literary Criticism, translated by T.S. Dorsch and Penelope Murray. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.

Arrian. The Anabasis of Alexander and Indica. Translated by P.A. Brunt. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976-83.

Ashburner, Walter. The Rhodian Sea-Law. 1909. Reprint Aalen, Germany: Scientia Verlag, 1976.

Athenaeus. The Deipnosophists. Translated by C.B. Gulick. 7 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1927-41.

Aulus Gellius. The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius. Translated by John C. Rolfe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Briscoe, John. “The Second Punic War.” In The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. 8, Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 B.C., A.E. Astin, et al., eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Caesar, Julius, ed. S.A. Handford. The Conquest of Gaul. Trans. J.M. Cohen. New York: Penguin Books, 1981.

Casson, Lionel. The Ancient Mariners: Seafarers and Sea Fighters of the Mediterranean in Ancient Times. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Casson, Lionel. “The Grain Trade of the Hellenistic World.” In Lionel Casson, Ancient Trade and Society. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984.

Casson, Lionel. “The Isis and her Voyage.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 81 (1950): 43-56.

Casson, Lionel. “The Role of the State in Rome’s Grain Trade.” In Lionel Casson, Ancient Trade and Society. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984.

Casson, Lionel. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Cicero. Pro Lege Manilia, etc. Translated by H. Grose Hodge. Loeb Classical Library, vol. 9. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1929.

Coke, Edward, Sir. The Third Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England: Concerning High Treason, and Other Pleas of the Crown. London: by the author, 1797. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Gale Group.

Commager, Steele. The Odes of Horace: A Critical Study. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1962.

D’Arms, John H. Romans on the Bay of Naples: A Social and Cultural Study of the Villas and Their Owners from 150 B.C. to A.D. 400. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.

De Souza, Philip. Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Diodorus Siculus. Library of History. Translated by C.H. Oldfather. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1933-1967.

Errington, R.M. “Rome against Philip and Antiochus.” ICn A.E. Astin, et al., eds. The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. 8, Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Florus, Lucius Annaeus. Epitome of Roman History. 1929. Reprint Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960.

Franke, P.R. “Pyrrhus” In F.W. Walbank, et al., eds. The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. 7, pt. 2, The Rise of Rome to 220 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Gabrielsen, Vincent. The Naval Aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1997.

Garnsey, Peter. “Grain for Rome.” Peter Garnsey, Keith Hopkins, and C.R. Whittaker, eds. Trade in the Ancient Economy, 118-30. London: Chatto and Windus, 1983.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Punic Wars. London: Cassell, 2000.

Green, Peter. The Greco-Persian Wars. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Habicht, C. “The Seleucids and their Rivals.” In The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. 8, Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 B.C., A.E. Astin, et al., eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. 1954. New ed., New York: Penguin, 1996.

Holy Bible: Acts.

Horace. Odes.

Livy. From the Founding of the City. Translated by B.O. Foster. 14 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1926.

Livy. Rome and the Mediterranean: Books XXXI-XLV of the History of Rome from its Foundation. Translated by Henry Bettenson. New York: Penguin Books, 1976.

Lucian. “The Ship or the Wishes.” In Lucian, translated by K. Kilburn. Loeb Classical Library, vol. 6. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968.

Oleson, John Peter. “The Technology of Roman Harbors.” International Journal of Nautical History 17:2 (1988): 147-157.*

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. 10 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938-1963.

Plutarch. Plutarch’s Lives. Translated by Bernadotte Perrin. 11 vols. Loeb Classical Library. New York: Macmillan, 1914-26.

Polybius. The Histories. Translated by W.R. Paton. 8 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Polybius. The Rise of the Roman Empire. Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert. New York: Penguin, 1980.

Salmon, E.T. “The Coloniae Maritimae.” Athenaeum 41 (1963): 3-38.

Scrinari, V. Santa Maria, and Giuseppina Lauro. Ancient Ostia: Past and Present. Rome: Vision, 1981.

Seneca. Natural Questions. 2 vols. Translated by Thomas H. Corcoran. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.

Pennell, C.R., ed. Bandits at Sea: A Pirates Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Strabo. The Geography of Strabo. Translated by H.L. Jones. 8 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1917-32.

Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Translated by Robert Graves. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1957.

Tchernia, André. “Italian Wine in Gaul at the End of the Republic.” In Trade in the Ancient Economy, ed. by Peter Garnsey, Keith Hopkins and C.R. Whittaker. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Thiel, Johannes Hendrik. A History of Roman Sea-power before the Second Punic War. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing, 1954.

Thucydides. The Peloponnesian War. Translated by Rex Warner. New York: Penguin, 1954.

Virgil. Aeneid. Translated by L.R. Lind. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1962.

Wallinga, H.T. The Boarding-Bridge of the Romans: Its Construction and its Function in the Naval Tactics of the First Punic War. Groningen: Wolters, 1956.

Chapter 5: The Indian Ocean to the Seventh Century

Ali, Abdul. “The Arabs as Seafarers.” Islamic Culture 54:4 (1980): 211-20.

Agatharchides of Cnidus. On the Erythraean Sea. Translated by Stanley M. Burstein. London: Hakluyt Society, 1989.

Arrian. The Anabasis of Alexander and Indica. Translated by P.A. Brunt. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976-83.

Casson, Lionel. “Cinnamon and Cassia in the Ancient World.” In Lionel Casson, Ancient Trade and Society, 225-46. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984.

Casson, Lionel. “New Light on Maritime Loans: PVindob.G 40882.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 84 (1990): 195-206.

Casson, Lionel, trans. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Christides, Vasilios. “Two Parallel Naval Guides of the Tenth Century: Qudama’s document and Leo VI’s Naumachia: A Study on Byzantine and Moslem Naval Preparedness.” Graeco-Arabica 1 (1982): 51-103.

Deloche, Jean. “Iconographic Evidence on the Development of Boat and Ship Structures in India (2nd C. B.C.-15TH C. A.D.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 199-224. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Duncan-Jones, Richard. Economy of the Roman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.

Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. 1954. New ed., New York: Penguin, 1996.

Ilanko Atikal. The Tale of an Anklet: An Epic of South India. The Cilappatikaram of Ilanko Atikal. Translated by R. Parthasarathy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Islam, Sirajul, and Sajahan Miah, eds. “Trade and Commerce.” Available online.

The Kautilya “Arthasastra,” Part II. Edited by R.P. Kangle. 2nd ed. Bombay: University of Bombay, 1972.

Laws of Manu. Translated by Wendy Doniger with Brian K. Smith. New York: Penguin, 1991.

Levi, Sylvain. “Manimekhala, a Divinity of the Sea.” Indian Historical Quarterly 6:4 (1930): 597-614.

The Jātaka: or, Stories of the Buddha’s Former Births. Translated by E.B. Cowell, et al. 1895-1907. Reprint London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “Southeast Asian Shipping in the Indian Ocean during the First Millennium A.D.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 181-97. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Mariners’ Museum. Aak to Zumbra: A Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft. Edited by Beverly McMillan, Susannah Livingston and Susan Beaven Rutter. Newport News, Va.: Mariners’ Museum, 2000.

Mukund, Kanakalatha. The Trading World of the Tamil Merchant: Evolution of Merchant Capitalism in the Coromandel. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1999.

Müller, F. Max, ed. Sacred Books of the East. 50 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879-1910.

Pearson, M.N. “Introduction.” In India and the Indian Ocean 1500-1800, edited by Ashin Das Gupta and M.N. Pearson, 1-24. Calcutta: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. 10 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938-1963.

Polybius. The Histories. Translated by W.R. Paton. 8 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Potts, D.T. “The Parthian Presence in the Arabian Gulf.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 269-85. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Pritchard, James B. The Ancient Near East. Vol. 1, An Anthology of Text and Pictures. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958.

Procopius. [History of the Wars; The Secret History; Buildings.] Translated by H.B. Dewing. 7 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1924-40.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “Early Coastal Trade in the Bay of Bengal.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 351-64. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. Monastery and Guild: Commerce under the Satavahanas. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “A Resurvey of Roman Contacts with the East.” In Marie-Françoise Boussac and Jean-François Salles, eds. Athens, Aden, Arikamedu: Essays on the Interrelations between India, Arabia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, 97-114. New Delhi: Manohar, 1995.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “The Yavana Presence in Ancient India.” In Marie-Françoise Boussac and Jean-François Salles, eds. Athens, Aden, Arikamedu: Essays on the Interrelations between India, Arabia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, 76-82. New Delhi: Manohar, 1995.

Redmount, Carol. “The Wadi Tumilat and the Canal of the Pharaohs.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 54 (1994): 127-35.

Rgveda Samhita: Vol. I. Translated by H.H. Wilson and Bhasya of Sayanacarya; edited by Ravi Prakash Arya and K.L. Joshi. Delhi: Parimal Publications, 1997.

Salles, Jean-François. “Achaemenid and Hellenistic Trade in the Indian Ocean.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 251-67. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.
s
Salomon, Richard. “On the Origin of the Early Indian Scripts: A Review Article.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 115:2 (1995): 271-79.

Sedov, A.V. “Qana’ (Yemen) and the Indian Ocean: The Archaeological Evidence.” In Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-Francois Salles, eds. Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean: Proceedings of the International Seminar “Techno-Archaeological Perspectives of Seafaring in the Indian Ocean, 4th cent. B.C.-15th cent. A.D.”, 11-35. New Delhi, February 28-March 4, 1994. 1996.

Sharma, R.S. “Usury in Early Medieval Times.” In Trade in Early India, edited by Ranabir Chakravarti, 370-95. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Shattan, Merchant-Prince. Manimekhalaï (The Dancer with the Magic Bowl). Translated by Alain Danielou. New York: New Directions, 1989.

Sidebotham, Steven E. “Ports of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade.” In Vimala Begley and Richard Daniel De Puma, eds. Rome and India: The Ancient Sea Trade, 12-38. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

Strabo. The Geography of Strabo. Translated by H.L. Jones. 8 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1917-32.

Tacitus. Annals of Imperial Rome. Translated by Michael Grant. Revd. ed. New York: Penguin, 1956.

Thapar, Romila. Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Tripati, Sila. Maritime Archaeology: Historical Descriptions of the Seafarings of the Kalingas. New Delhi: Kaveri Books, 2000.

Uruthirankannanar. “Pattinapalai.” In J.V. Chelliah, trans., Pattupattu: Ten Tamil Idylls. Thanjavur: Tamil University Press, 1985.

Weerakkody, D.P.M. “Sri Lanka through Greek and Roman Eyes.” In Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea, edited by Senake Bandaranayake et al., 163-72. Colombo: Sri Lanka National Commission for UNESCO/Central Cultural Fund, 1990.

Weerakkody, D.P.M. Taprobanê: Ancient Sri Lanka as known to Greeks and Romans. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997.

Wendrich, W.Z., R.S. Tomber, S.E. Sidebotham, et al. “Berenike Crossroads: The Integration of Information.” Journal of the Economic & Social History of the Orient 46:1 (2003): 46-88.

Wheeler, Mortimer. Rome Beyond the Imperial Frontiers. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1954.

Winius, George D. “Shadow Empire in the Bay of Bengal.” In Portugal, the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval Towards the Modern World 1300-ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, 247-68. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Wolters, O.W. Early Indonesian Commerce: A Study of the Origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967.

Young, Gary K. Rome’s Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC-AD 305. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Chapter 6: China and Southeast Asia to the Seventh Century

Ban, Gu. Food and Money in Ancient China: The Earliest Economic History of China to A.D. 25: Han Shu 24, with related texts, Han Shu 91 and Shih-chi 129. Translated by Nancy Lee Swann. 1950. Reprint New York: Octagon Books, 1974.

Bandaranayake, Senake, et. al., eds. Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea. Colombo: Sri Lanka National Commission for UNESCO and the Central Cultural Fund, 1990.

Bellwood, Peter. “Southeast Asia before History.” In The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Vol. 1, pt. 1, From Early Times to c. 1500, edited by Nicholas Tarling, 55-136. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Bielenstein, Hans. Diplomacy and Trade in the Chinese World 589-1276. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Brown, Delmer M. “The Yamato Kingdom.” In The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 1, Ancient Japan, edited by Delmer M. Brown, 108-62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Casson, Lionel, trans. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

de Crespigny, Rafe. Generals of the South: The Foundation and Early History of the Three Kingdoms State of Wu. Canberra: Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies, 1990. Internet edition 2004. Available online.

Deng, Gang. Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. Westport: Greenwood, 1997.

Deng, Gang. Maritime Sector, Institutions, and Sea Power of Premodern China. Westport: Greenwood, 1999.

Gungwu, Wang. The Nanhai Trade: The Early History of Chinese Trade in the South China Sea. 2nd ed. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1998.

Hall, Kenneth R. “Local and International Trade and Traders in the Straits of Melaka Region: 600-1500.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 47:2 (2004): 213-60.

Hall, Kenneth R. Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Iryŏn. Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea. Translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 1972.

Lee, Ki-Baik. A New History of Korea. Translated by Edward W. Wagner, with Edward J. Shultz. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984

Lu, David J. Japan: A Documentary History. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “The Archaeology of Early Maritime Polities of Southeast Asia.” In Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, edited by Ian Glover and Peter Bellwood, 282-313. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “The Southeast Asian Ship, An Historical Approach.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 11:2 (1980): 266-76.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “Southeast Asian Shipping in the Indian Ocean during the First Millennium A.D.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 181-97. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Needham, Joseph, with Wang Ling and Lu Gwei-djen. Science and Civilization in China. Vol. 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part III, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. Translated by W.G. Aston. 1924. Reprint Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1972.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “Early Coastal Trade in the Bay of Bengal.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 351-64. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. Monastery and Guild: Commerce under the Satavahanas. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian. Translated by Burton Watson. Rev. ed. 2 vols. New York: Renditions-Columbia University Press, 1993.

Southworth, William A. “The Coastal States of Champa.” In Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, edited by Ian Glover and Peter Bellwood, 209-233. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Spennemann, Dirk R. “On the Bronze Age Ship Model from Flores, Indonesia.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology14.3 (1985): 237-241.

Stuart-Fox, Martin. A Short History of China and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade and Influence. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2003.

Taylor, Keith Weller. The Birth of Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Wheatley, Paul. The Golden Khersonese: Studies in the Historical Geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1961.

Wheeler, Mortimer. Rome Beyond the Imperial Frontiers. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1954.

Wright, Arthur F. The Sui Dynasty. New York: Knopf, 1978.

Yu Huan. The Peoples of the West: From the Weilue, A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Quoted in Zhuan 30 of the Sanguozhi. Published in 429 CE. Draft English translation by John E. Hill, September, 2004. Availble online.

Chapter 7: The Byzantine and Muslim Mediterranean

Anna Comnena. Alexiad. Translated by E.R.A. Sewter. New York: Penguin, 1969.

Ashburner, Walter. The Rhodian Sea-Law. 1909. Reprint Aalen, Germany: Scientia Verlag, 1976.

Aziz Ahmad. A History of Islamic Sicily. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 1975.

Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya. The Origins of the Islamic State. Translated by Philip Khuri Hitti. 1916. Reprint Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2002.

Bass, G.F., and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr. “An 11th-Century Shipwreck at Serçe Limani, Turkey.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7 (1978) 119-132.

Bass, G.F., and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr. “A Fourth-Century Shipwreck at Yassi Ada.” American Journal of Archaeology 75 (1971): 27-37.

Bass, G.F., and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr. Yassi Ada. Vol. 1, A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck. College Station, Tex.: IJNA, 1982.

Bass, G.F. “A Byzantine Trading Venture.” Scientific American 225 (Aug. 1971) 22-33.

Bury, J.B. A History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I. 1912. Reprint New York: Russell and Russell, 1965.

Christides, Vasilios. The Conquest of Crete by the Arabs (ca. 824): A Turning Point in the Struggle between Byzantium and Islam. Athens: Akademia Athenon, 1984.

Christides, Vasilios. “Fireproofing of War Machines, Ships and Garments.” In Sailing Ships of the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Vol. 1. Edited by Christos G. Makrypoulias. Athens: Kuwait F.A.S., 1998.

Christides, Vasilios. “Milaha.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, edited by C.E. Bosworth, E. van Dozel, W.P. Heindrichs, and Ch. Pellat. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993.

Christides, Vasilios. “Two Parallel Naval Guides of the Tenth Century: Qudama’s document and Leo VI’s Naumachia: A Study on Byzantine and Moslem Naval Preparedness.” Graeco-Arabica 1 (1982): 51-103.

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. De administrando imperio. Translated by R.J.H. Jenkins. Rev. ed. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1985.

Davidson, H.R. Ellis. “The Secret Weapon of Byzantium.” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 66 (1973): 61-74.

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer. Two Lives of Charlemagne. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. New York: Penguin, 1969.

Fahmy, Aly Mohamed. Muslim Naval Organization in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D. 2nd ed. Cairo: National Publication & Printing House, 1966.

García Moreno, L.A. “Creation of Byzantium’s Spanish Province: Causes and Propaganda.” Byzantion 66 (1996): 101-19.

Goitein, S.D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. 5 vols. 1967. Reprint Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Haldane, Douglas. “The Fire-Ship of Al-Salih Ayyub and Muslim Use of ‘Greek Fire.’” In The Circle of War in the Middle Ages: Essays on Medieval Military and Naval History, edited by Donald J. Kagay and L.J. Andrew Villalon. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999.

Haywood, John. Dark Age Naval Power: A Reassessment of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity. Revised ed. Hockwold-cum-Wilton, Norfolk: 1999.

Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs from the Earliest Times to the Present. 10th ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1970.

Hourani, George F. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times. Revised and expanded by John Carswell. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Ibn Khaldun. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. 3 vols. Bollingen Series 43. New York: Pantheon Books, 1958.

Kaminiates, John. The Capture of Thessaloniki. Translated by David Frendo and Athanasios Fotiou. Perth: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 2000.

Khalilieh, Hassan S. Islamic Maritime Law: An Introduction. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Kubiak, Wladyslaw B. “The Byzantine Attack on Damietta in 853 and the Egyptian Navy in the 9th Century.” Byzantion 40 (1970): 45-66.

Lewis, Archibald. Naval Power and Trade in the Mediterranean, A.D. 500-1000. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951.

Lopez, Robert S. The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950-1350. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Lot, Ferdinand. The End of the Ancient World and the Beginnings of the Middle Ages. 1931. Reprint New York: Harper and Row, 1961.

Makrypoulias, Christos G. “Byzantine Expeditions against the Emirate of Crete c. 825-949.” Graeco-Arabica 7-8 (2000): 347-362.

McCormick, Michael. Origins of the European Economy: Communications and Commerce, AD 300-900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Paine, Lincoln P. “A Pax Upon You: Preludes and Perils of American Imperialism.” Clio’s Psyche 10:3 (Dec. 2003): 91-97.

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Parker, A.J. Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean & the Roman Provinces. Oxford, Eng.: Tempus Reparatum, 1992.

Procopius. [History of the Wars; The Secret History; Buildings.] Translated by H.B. Dewing. 7 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1924-40.

Rankov, Boris. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC to AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since Pre-Classical Times, edited by J.S. Morrison, 78-85. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

Runciman, Steven. “Byzantine Trade and Industry.” In The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, edited by M.M. Postan, et al., vol. 2, pp. 132-67. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Runciman, Steven. Byzantine Civilisation. London: Edward Arnold, 1933.

Steffy, J. Richard. “The Reconstruction of the 11th Century Serçe Liman Vessel. A Preliminary Report.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 11 (1982): 13-34.

Stratos, Andreas N. “The Naval Engagement at Phoenix.” 1980. Reprinted in Studies in 7th-Century Byzantine Political History, Andreas N. Stratos. London: Variorum Reprints, 1983. pp. 230-247.

al-Tabari. The History of al-Tabari. 39 vols. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985.

Taha, Abd al-Wahid Dhannun. The Muslim Conquest and Settlement of North Africa and Spain. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Theophanes, the Confessor. The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History, AD 284-813. Translated by Cyril Mango and Roger Scott. New York : Oxford University Press, 1997.

van Doorninck, Frederick H., Jr. “The 4th-century Wreck at Yassi Ada: An Interim Report on the Hull.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 5 (1976): 115-131.

Zenkovsky, Serge A., ed. Medieval Russia’s Epics, Chronicles, and Tales. New York: Dutton, 1974.

Zosimus. New History. Translated by Ronald T. Ridley. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982.

Chapter 8: Northern European Seas through the Viking Age

Adam of Bremen. History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Translated by Francis J. Tschau. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

Alcuin of York, ed. Stephen Allott. Alcuin of York, c. a.d. 732 to 804: His Life and Letters. York: William Sessions Ltd., 1974.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Translated by Michael Swanton. Revised edition. London: Phoenix Press, 2000.

Arenhold, Capt. L. “The Nydam Boat at Kiel.” Mariner’s Mirror 4 (1914): 182-185.

Ari Thorgilsson. The Book of the Icelanders (Íslendingabók). Translated by Halldór Hermannsson. Ithaca: Cornell University Library, 1930.

Bachrach, Bernard S. “On the Origins of William the Conqueror’s Horse Transports.” Technology and Culture 26:3 (1985): 505-31. Reprinted in Warfare and Military Organization in Pre-Crusade Europe. Ashgate: Variorum, 2002.

Bede. A History of the English Church and People. Translated by Leo Sherley-Price. New York: Penguin Books, 1968.

Beowulf. Translated by Seamus Heaney. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000.

Boardman, John. The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade. 4th ed. London: Thames and Hudson, 1999.

Brøgger, A.W., and Haakon Shetelig. The Viking Ships: Their Ancestry and Evolution. Translated by Katherine John. Los Angeles: K.K. Mogensen, 1953.

Caesar, Julius, ed. S.A. Handford. The Conquest of Gaul. Translated by J.M. Cohen. New York: Penguin Books, 1981.

Carver, M.O.H. “Pre-Viking Traffic in the North Sea.” In Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons, ed. Seán McGrail, 117-25. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1990.

Christensen, Arne Emil. “Proto-Viking, Viking and Norse Craft.” In Robert Gardiner and A.E. Christensen, eds. The Earliest Ships: The Evolution of Boats into Ships, 72-88. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. De administrando imperio. Translated by R.J.H. Jenkins. Rev. ed. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1985.

Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole. “The Skuldelev Ships.” Acta Archaeologica 38 (1967): 73-174.

Cunliffe, Barry W. The Extraordinary Voyage of Pytheas the Greek. New York: Walker, 2002.

DeVries, Kelly. The Norwegian Invasion of England in 1066. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999.

Dunlop, D.M. The History of the Jewish Khazars. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954.

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer. Two Lives of Charlemagne. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. New York: Penguin, 1969.

El-Hajji, A.A. “The Andalusian Diplomatic Relations with the Vikings during the Umayyad Period.” Hesperis Tamuda 8 (1967): 67-110.

Evans, Angela Care. The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial. London: British Museum Press, 1986.

Flodoard of Reims. The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 919-966. Translated by Steven Fanning and Bernard S. Bachrach. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 2004.

Gifford, Edwin, and Joyce Gifford. “The Sailing Performance of Anglo-Saxon Ships as Derived from the Building and Trials of Half-Scale Models of the Sutton Hoo & Graveney Ship Finds.” Mariner’s Mirror 82 (1996): 131-153.

Greenland Saga. In The Vinland Sagas: The Norse Discovery of America (Graenlendinga SagaEirik’s Saga), translated by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson. New York: Penguin Books, 1965.

Haywood, John. Dark Age Naval Power: A Reassessment of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity. Revised ed. Hockwold-cum-Wilton, Norfolk: 1999.

Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. 1954. New ed., New York: Penguin, 1996.

Höckmann, Olaf. “Late Roman Rhine Vessels from Mainz, Germany.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 22 (1993): 125-135.

Höckmann, Olaf. “Late Roman River Craft from Mainz, Germany.” In Local Boats, Fourth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Porto 1985, edited by O.L. Filgueiras. BAR International Series 438:23-34. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1988.

Jones, Gwyn. A History of the Vikings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

King Harald’s Saga. Translated by Hermann Pálsson. New York: Penguin, 1966.

Lapidge, Michael, ed. Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.

Lund, Niels, ed.; Christine E. Fell, trans. Two Voyagers at the Court of King Alfred: The Ventures of Ohthere and Wulfstan, together with the Description of Northern Europe from the Old English Orosius. York, England: William Sessions, 1984.

Magnusson, Magnus. The Vikings. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2000.

Magnússon, Sigurdur A. Northern Sphinx: Iceland and the Icelanders from the Settlement to the Present. Reykjavik: The English Bookshop, 1977.

Marcus, G.J. The Conquest of the North Atlantic. Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press, 1980.

McGrail, Sean. “Boats and Boatmanship in the Southern North Sea and Channel.” In Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons, edited by Seán McGrail, 32-48. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1990.

Milne, Gustav. “Maritime Traffic between the Rhine and Roman Britain: A Preliminary Note.” In Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons, edited by Seán McGrail, 82-85. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1990.

Milne, Gustav and Damian Goodburn. “The Early Medieval Port of London ad 700-1200.” Antiquity 64 (1990): 629-36.

Ó Cróinin, Dáibhi. A New History of Ireland. Vol. 1, Prehistoric and Early Ireland. New York: Oxord University Press, 2003.

Olsen, Olaf, and Ole Crumlin-Pedersen. Five Viking Ships from Roskilde Fjord. Copenhagen: The National Museum, 1978.

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Rimbert, Saint. Anskar, the Apostle of the North. Translated by Charles H. Robinson. London: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1921.

Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea, 660-1649. London: Harper Collins, 1997.

Severin, Tim. The Brendan Voyage: A Leather Boat Tracks the Discovery of America by the Irish Sailor Saints. New York: McGraw Hill, 1978.

Sjövold, Thorleif. The Oseberg Find and the Other Viking Ship Finds. Oslo: Universitets Oldsaksamling, 1966.

Snorri Sturluson. The Story of Olaf Tryggvison. In The Stories of the Kings of Norway, called the Round World (Heimskringla), translated by William Morris and Eiríkr Magnússon, vol. 1, pp. 223-378. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1893.

Starr, Chester G. The Roman Imperial Navy: 31 B.C.-A.D. 324. 3rd ed. 1941. Reprint Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1993.

Tacitus. The Agricola and The Germania. Translated by H. Mattingly and S.A. Handford. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1970.

Tacitus. The Histories. Translated by Kenneth Wellesley. New York: Penguin Books, 1972.

The Vinland Sagas: The Norse Discovery of America (Graenlendinga Saga and Eirik’s Saga), translated by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson. New York: Penguin Books, 1965.

The Voyage of St. Brendan. In The Age of Bede, translated by J.F. Webb and D.H. Farmer, 231-67. Revised ed. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

Wright, John W. ed. New York Times Almanac 2005. New York: New York Times, 2004.

Zenkovsky, Serge A., ed. Medieval Russia’s Epics, Chronicles, and Tales. New York: Dutton, 1974.

Zosimus. New History. Translated by Ronald T. Ridley. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982.

Chapter 9: The Indian Ocean in the Early Muslim Era

Ahmad, S. Maqbul. “Travels of Abu ’l Hasan ‘Ali b. al Husayn al Mas‘udi.” Islamic Culture 28 (1954): 509-24.

al-Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya (d. 892). The Origins of the Islamic State, being a translation from the Arabic, accompanied with annotations, geographic and historic notes of the Kitâb futûh al-buldân. Translated by Philip Khûri Hitti. Reprint New York: AMS Press, 1968-69.

Bielenstein, Hans. Diplomacy and Trade in the Chinese world, 589-1276. Boston: Brill, 2005.

Blench, Roger. “The Ethnographic Evidence for Long-Distance Contacts between Oceania and East Africa.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 417-38. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Brett, Michael. The Rise of the Fatimids: The World of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the Fourth Century of the Hijra, Tenth Century CE. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

Buzurg ibn Shahriyar of Ramhormuz. The Book of the Wonders of India: Mainland, Sea and Islands. Translated by G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville. London: East-West Publications, 1981.

Chakravarti, Prithwis Chandra. “Naval Warfare in Ancient India.” Indian Historical Quarterly 4:4 (1930): 645-64. http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/cha.htm

Chandra, Lokesh, ed. India’s Contribution to World Thought and Culture. Madras: Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee, 1970.

Chittick, Neville. Kilwa: An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast. Vol. 1, History and Archaeology. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1974.

Chittick, Neville. “East African Trade with the Orient.” In D.S. Richards, ed., Islam and the Trade of Asia, 97-104. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer, 1970.

Chou Yi-liang, “Tantrism in China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 8:3/4 (Mar. 1945): 241-332.

Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

di Meglio, R.R. “Arab Trade with Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula from the 8th to the 16th Century.” In D.S. Richards, ed., Islam and the Trade of Asia, 105-36. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer, 1970.

Elliot, H.M., and John Dowson, trans. The History of India, as Told by its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period. 8 vols. 1867-77. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1966.

Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by P.J. Bearman, et al. New ed. 12. vols. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1980-.

Gunawardana, R.A.L.H. “Changing Patterns of Navigation in the Indian Ocean and their Impact on Pre-colonial Sri Lanka.” In The Indian Ocean: Explorations in History, Commerce and Politics, edited by Satish Chandra, 54-89. New Delhi: Sage, 1987.

Hasan, Hadi. A History of Persian Navigation. London: Methuen, 1928.

Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs. 10th ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1970.

Hopkirk, Peter. Foreign Devils on the Silk Road: The Search for the Lost Treasures of Central Asia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Hourani, George F. Revised and expanded by John Carswell. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times. Rev. ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Ibn al-Balkhi. Description of the Province of Fars in Persia at the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century A.D. Translated by G. Le Strange. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1912. http://Persian.Packhum.Org/Persian/. Accessed February 24, 2006.

Ibn Khaldun. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. 3 vols. Bollingen Series 43. New York: Pantheon Books, 1958.

Keay, John. India: A History. New York: Grove Press, 2000.

Levy, Howard S. Biography of Huang Ch’ao. Translated by Howard S. Levy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955.

Lord, Henry. A Display of Two Forraigne Sects in the East Indies: Viz: The Sect of the Banians the Ancient Natiues of India and the Sect of the Persees the Ancient Inhabitants Of Persia. London: Francis Constable, 1630.

Mott, Lawrence. The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1997.*

Naji, Abdel Jabbar. “Trade Relations between Bahrain and Iraq in the Middle Ages: A Commercial and Political Outline.” In Bahrain through the Ages: The History. Edited by Abdullah bin Khalid al-Khalifa and Michael Rice, 423-44. London: Kegan Paul, 1991.

Nasir-i Khusraw. Book of Travels [Safarnama]. Translated by Wheeler M. Thackston. Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda Publishers, 2001.

Rougeulle, Axelle. “Medieval Trade Networks in the Western Indian Ocean (8th-14th centuries): Some Reflections from the Distribution Patterns of Chinese Imports in the Islamic World.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 159-80. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Sen, Tansen. Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400. Honolulu: Association for Asian Studies and University of Hawai’i Press, 2003.

al-Sirafi, Abu Zayd Hasan ibn Yazid. Concerning the Voyage to the Indies and China. In Ancient Accounts of India and China by two Mohammedan Travellers, who went to those parts in the 9th century. Translated by Eusebius Renaudot. 1733. Amended reprint, New Delhi: Asian Education Services, 1995.

Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. Edited by Ooi Keat Gin. 3 vols. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004.

Spear, Thomas. “Early Swahili History Reconsidered.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 33:2 (2000): 257-90.

Spencer, George W. The Politics of Expansion: The Chola Conquest of Sri Lanka and Sri Vijaya. Madras: New Era, 1983.

Sulayman al-Tajir. Account of India and China. In Arabic Classical Accounts of India and China, translated by S. Maqbul Ahmad. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study in association with Rddhi-India, Calcutta, 1989.

al-Tabari. The History of al-Tabari. Vol. 36: The Revolt of the Zanj A.D. 869-879/A.H. 255-265. Translated by David Waines. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

Tibbetts, G.R. Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean before the Coming of the Portuguese: Being a Translation of Kitab al-Farawa’id fi usul al-bahr wa’l-qawa’id of Ahmad b. Majid al-Najdi. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1971.

Tibbetts, G.R. “Early Muslim Traders in Southeast Asia.” Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 29:3 (1956): 182-208.

Tripati, Sila. “Ships on Hero Stones from the West Coast of India.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 35:1 (2006): 88-96.

Wang, Gungwu. The Nanhai Trade: The Early History of Chinese Trade in the South China Sea. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1998.

Wilkinson, J.C. “Oman and East Africa: New Light on Early Kilwan History from the Omani Sources.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 14:2 (1981): 272-305.

Wilkinson, J.C. “Suhar (Sohar) in the Early Islamic Period: The Written Evidence.” In South Asian Archaeology 1977 (Papers from the Fourth International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe), edited by Maurizio Taddei, 888-907 (1-21). Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale, 1979.

Wink, André. Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Vol. 1. Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2002.

Xuanzang [Hiuen Tsiang] (ca. 600-664). Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World. 2 volumes in 1. Translated by Samuel Beal. Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp., 1969.

Yijing [I-Tsing]. A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695). Translated by Junjiro Takakusu. 1896. Reprint Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1966.
and


Chapter 10: East and Southeast Asia

Benn, Charles. China’s Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Bielenstein, Hans. Diplomacy and Trade in the Chinese World 589-1276. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Bray, Francesca. Agriculture. Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 6, pt. 2, edited by Joseph Needham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Brown, Delmer M., ed. The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 1, Ancient Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Burningham, Nick. “The Borobudur Ship—Design Outline.” www.borobudurshipexpedition.com/design-outline.htm (June 26, 2006).

Buzurg ibn Shahriyar of Ramhormuz. The Book of the Wonders of India: Mainland, Sea and Islands. Translated by G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville. London: East-West Publications, 1981.

Casparis, J.G. de. Selected Inscriptions from the 7th to the 9th Century a.d. Prasasti IndonesiaBandung: Masa Baru, 1956. 2.

Chin, James K. “Ports, Merchants, Chieftains and Eunuchs: Reading Maritime Commerce of Early Guangdong.” In Guangdong: Archaeology and Early Texts, edited by Shing Müller, Thomas O. Höllmann and Putao Gui, 217-39. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2004.

Clark, Hugh R. Community, Trade and Networks: Southern Fujian from the 3rd to the 13th Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Dalby, Michael T. “Court Politics in Late T’ang Times.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, pt. I, edited by Denis Twitchett, 561-681. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Elvin, Mark. The Pattern of the Chinese Past. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1973.

Ennin. Ennin’s Diary: The Record of a Pilgrimage to China in Search of the Law. New York: Ronald Press, 1955.

Flecker, Michael. “A Ninth-Century ad Arab or Indian Shipwreck in Indonesia: First Evidence for Direct Trade with China.” World Archaeology 32:3 (2001): 335-54.

Graff, David A. Medieval Chinese Warfare, 300-900. London: Routledge, 2002.

Green, Jeremy. “Arabia to China: The Oriental Traditions.” In The Earliest Ships: The Evolution of Boats into Ships, edited by Robert Gardiner and Arne Emil Christensen, chap. 6. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Grousset, René. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.

Guisso, Richard W.L. “The Reigns of the Empress Wu, Chung-tsung and Jui-tsung (684-712).” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, Part I, edited by Denis Twitchett, 290-332. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Hall, Kenneth R. “Economic History of Early Southeast Asia.” In Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Vol. 1, pt. 1, From Early Times to c. 1500, edited by Nicholas Tarling, 183-275. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Hall, K.R. “Local and International Trade and Traders in the Straits of Melaka Region: 600-1500.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 47:2 (2004): 213-60.

Hall, Kenneth R. Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Hall, Kenneth R. Trade and Statecraft in the Age of Colas. New Delhi: Abhinav, 1980.

Henthorn, William E. A History of Korea. New York: Free Press, 1971.

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Ibn Khurdadhbih, Kitab al-Masalik wa’l-Mamalik.

Jitsuzo Kuwabara. “P’u Shou-keng, a Man of the Western Regions, who was Superintendent of the Trading Ships Office in Ch’uan-chou towards the end of the Sung Dynasty.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library) 2 (1928): 1-79 and 7 (1935): 1-104.

Lee, Kenneth B. Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Westport: Praeger, 1997.

Lee, Ki-baek. A New History of Korea. Translated by Edward W. Wagner, with Edward J. Shultz. Cambridge: Harvard-Yenching Institute by Harvard University Press, 1984.

Lien-sheng Yang. Money and Credit in China: A Short History. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph 12. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “The Archaeology of Early Maritime Polities of Southeast Asia.” In Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, edited by Ian C. Glover and Peter Bellwood, 282-313. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “Trading Ships of the South China Sea.” Journal of the Economic & Social History of the Orient 36:3 (1993): 253-280.

Manyoshu: The Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkoksi Translation of One Thousand Poems. Translated by Donald Keene New York: Columbia University Press, 1965.

Miksic, John N. “The Classical Cultures of Indonesia.” In Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, edited by Ian C. Glover and Peter Bellwood, 234-56. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Miksic, John N. Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddha. Singapore: Periplus, 1990.

Mitsusada, Inoue, with Delmer M. Brown. “The Century of Reform.” In The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 1, Ancient Japan, edited by Delmer M. Brown, 163-220. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Mote, F.W. Imperial China: 900-1800. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Needham, Joseph, with Wang Ling and Lu Gwei-djen. Science and Civilization in China, vol. 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part III Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to a.d. 697. Translated by W.G. Aston. 1924. Reprint Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1972.

Ouyang Xiu. Biography of Huang Chao. Translated by Howard S. Levy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955.

Paine, Lincoln. Down East: A Maritime History of Maine. Gardiner: Tilbury House, 2000.

Peterson, C.A. “Court and Province in mid- and late T’ang.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, Part I, edited by Denis Twitchett, 464-560. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G. The Background of the Rebellion of An Lu-shan. London: Oxford University Press, 1955.

Reischauer, Edwin O. Ennin’s Travels in T’ang China. New York: Ronald Press, 1955.

Schafer, Edward H. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T’ang Exotics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Schafer, Edward H. The Vermilion Bird: T’ang Images of the South. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967. DS749.3 .S3

al-Sirafi, Abu Zayd Hasan ibn Yazid. Concerning the Voyage to the Indies and China. In Ancient Accounts of India and China by Two Mohammedan Travellers, Who Went to Those Parts in the 9th Century. Translated by Eusebius Renaudot. 1733. Amended reprint, New Delhi: Asian Education Services, 1995.

So, Kee Long. “Developments in Southern Fukien under the T’ang and the Min.” Journal of African and Oriental Studies 115.3 (1995): 443-51.

Somers, Robert M. “The End of the T’ang.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, Part I, edited by Denis Twitchett, 682-790. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Taylor, Keith Weller. The Birth of Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Twitchett, Denis. “A Confucian’s View of the Taxation of Commerce: Ts’ui Jung’s Memorial of 703.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36.2 (1973): 429-45.

Twitchett, Denis, and Howard J. Wechsler. “Kao-tsung (reign 649-83) and the empress Wu: the inheritor and the usurper.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, Part I, edited by Denis Twitchett, 242-89. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Twitchett, Denis, and John K. Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, Part I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Twitchett, Denis. “Hsüan-tsung (reign 712-56).” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, Part I, edited by Denis Twitchett, 333-463. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Twitchett, Denis. “The Transportation System.” Chapter 5 of Financial Administration under the T’ang Dynasty. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Wallace, Alfred Russel. The Malay Archipelago: The Land of the Orang-utan and the Bird of Paradise; a Narrative of Travel, with Studies of Man and Nature. 10th ed. London: Macmillan, 1902.

Wang Gungwu. The Nanhai Trade: The Early History of Chinese Trade in the South China Sea. 2nd ed. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1998.

Wechsler, Howard J. “T’ai-tsung (reign 626-49) the Consolidator.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589-906, Part I, edited by Denis Twitchett, 188-241. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Wei Chuang [Zhuang]. “The Lament of the Lady of Ch’in.” In Sunflower Splendor: Three Thousand Years of Chinese Poetry, edited by Wu-chi Liu and Irving Yucheng Lo, 267-81. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1975.

Worcester, G.R.G. The Junkman Smiles. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959.

Yoshinobu, Shiba. Commerce and Society in Sung China. Translated by Mark Elvin. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1970.


Chapter 11: The Struggle for Europe and the Mediterranean, 1200-1500

Abulafia, David. “Trade and Crusade, 1050-1250.” In Mediterranean Encounters, Economic, Religious, Political, 1100-1550. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

Adam of Bremen. History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

Allmand, Christopher. The Hundred Years War: England and France at War c.1300-c.1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Anna Comnena. The Alexiad. Translated by E.R.A. Sewter. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.

Ascherson, Neal. Black Sea. New York: Hill & Wang, 1995.

Ayalon, D. “The Mamluks and Naval Power: A Phase of the Struggle between Islam and Christian Europe.” Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 1 (1965): 1-12.

Benjamin of Tudela. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages.Malibu: J. Simon, 1983. Introductions by Michael A. Signer, M.N. Adler and A. Asher.

Bjork, David K. “Piracy in the Baltic, 1375-1398.” Speculum 18:1 (1943): 39-68.

Bjork, David K. “The Peace of Stralsund, 1370.” Speculum 7 (1932): 447-76.

Boccaccio, Giovanni. Decameron. Translated by G.H. McWilliam. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.

Bondioli, Mauro, Rene Burlet, and Andre Zysberg. “Oar Mechanics and Oar Power in Medieval and Later Galleys.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since Pre-Classical Times, edited by Robert Gardiner and John Morrison, 172-205. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

Byrne, Eugene H. “Commercial Contracts of the Genoese in the Syrian Trade of the Twelfth Century.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 31:1 (1916): 128-70.

Charanis, Peter. “Piracy in the Aegean during the Reign of Michael VIII Palaeologus.” Annuaire de l’Institut de Philologie et d’Histoire Orientales et Slaves 10 (1950): 127-36. Reprinted in Social, Economic and Political lLife in the Byzantine Empire: Collected Studies, edited by Peter Charanis. London: Variorum Reprints, 1973.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales. Translated by Nevill Coghill. New York: Penguin, 1975.

Choniates, Nicetas. O City of Byzantium: Annals of Nicetas Choniates. Translated by Harry J. Magoulias. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984.

Constable, Olivia Remie. “The Problem of Jettison in Medieval Mediterranean Maritime Law.” Journal of Medieval History 20 (1994): 207-20.

Constable, Olivia Remie. Trade and Traders in Muslim Spain: The Commercial Realignment of the Iberian Peninsula, 900-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Cowdrey, H.E.J. “The Mahdia Campaign of 1087.” English Historical Review 92 (1977): 1-29.

Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, vol. 1, Inferno. Translated by Robert M. Durling. New York: Oxford, 1996.

David, Charles Wendell, trans. The Conquest of Lisbon (De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi). 1936. Reprint New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

de Roover, Florence Edler. “Early Examples of Marine Insurance.” Journal of Economic History 5:2 (1945): 172-200.

DeVries, K. “God, Leadership, Flemings and Archery: Contemporary Perceptions of Victory and Defeat at the Battle of Sluys, 1340.” American Neptune 55 (1995): 223-42.

Dollinger, Philippe. The German Hansa. Translated by D.S. Ault and S.H. Steinberg. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1970.

Dotson, John E. “Fleet Operations in the First Genoese-Venetian War, 1264-1266.” Viator 30 (1999): 165-180.

Ehrenkreutz, A.S. “The Place of Saladin in the Naval History of the Mediterranean Sea.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 75:2 (1955): 100-116.

Ellmers, Detlev. “The Cog as Cargo Carrier.” In Cogs, Caravels and Galleons: The Sailing Ship 1000–1650, edited by Robert Gardiner and Richard W. Unger, 29-46. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1994.

Evans, Joan. Life in Medieval France. London: Phaidon, 1925.

Frankopan, Peter. “Byzantine Trade Privileges to Venice in the Eleventh Century: The Chrysobull of 1092.” Journal of Medieval History 20 (2004): 135-60.

Gade, John Allyne. The Hanseatic Control of Norwegian Commerce during the Late Middle Ages. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1951.

Gardiner, Robert, and Richard W. Unger, eds. Cogs, Caravels and Galleons: The Sailing Ship 1000–1650. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1994.

Goitein, S.D. “Letters and Documents of the India Trade in Medieval Times.” In Studies in Islamic History and Institutions, 329-50. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1966.

Goitein, S.D. “Mediterranean Trade in the Eleventh Century: Some Facts and Problems.” In Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day, edited by M.A. Cook, 51-62. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Goitein, S.D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

Hamblin, W. “The Fatimid Navy during the Early Crusades, 1099-1124.” American Neptune 46 (1986): 77-84.

Henricus Lettus. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Translated by James A. Brundage. 1961. Reprint New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Herlihy, David, edited by Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cambridge; Harvard University Press, 1997.

Holmes, G.A. “The ‘Libel of English Policy’.” English Historical Review 76:299 (1961): 193-216.

Ibn Battuta. The Travels of Ibn Battuta, a.d. 1325-1354. 5 vols. Translated by H.A.R. Gibb. London: Hakluyt Society, 1958-2000.

Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Jackson, Richard P. “From Profit-Sailing to Wage-Sailing: Mediterranean Owner-Captains and their Crews during the Medieval Commercial Revolution.” Journal of European Economic History 18:3 (1989): 605-28.

James, Margery Kirkbride, edited by Elspeth M. Veale. Studies in the Medieval Wine Trade. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.

Khalilieh, Hassan S. Islamic Maritime Law: An Introduction. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

King, Charles. The Black Sea: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Kirby, David, and Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen. The Baltic and the North Seas. London: Routledge, 2000.

Labib, Subhi. “Egyptian Commercial Policy in the Middle Ages.” In Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day, edited by M.A. Cook, 63-77. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Lahn, Werner. Die Kogge von Bremen—the Hanse Cog of Bremen. Hamburg: Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum, 1992.

Lane, Frederic C. “The Crossbow in the Nautical Revolution of the Middle Ages.” In Economy, Society, and Government in Medieval Italy: Essays in Memory of Robert L. Reynolds. Edited by David Herlihy, Robert S. Lopez and Vsevolod Slessarev, 35-41. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1969.

Lane, Frederic C. “The Economic Meaning of War and Protection.” In Venice and History: The Collected Papers of Frederic C. Lane, edited by Fernand Braudel et al. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.

Lane, Frederic C. Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance. 1934. Reprint Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Lane, Frederic C. Venice: A Maritime Republic. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Lewis, Archibald R. “Northern European Sea Power and the Straits of Gibraltar, 1031-1350 A.D.” In Order and Innovation in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of Joseph R. Strayer, edited by William C. Jordan, Bruce McNab, and Teofilo F. Ruiz, pp. 139-64. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.

Lopez, Robert S. “Majorcans and Genoese on the North Sea Route in the 13th Century.” Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire 29 (1951): 1163-79.

Lopez, Robert S. The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950-1350. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Lopez, Robert S., and Irving W. Raymond. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents. New York: Columbia University Press, 1955.

Lopez, Robert Sabatino. “European Merchants in the Medieval Indies: The Evidence of Commercial Documents.” Journal of Economic History 3:2 (1943): 164-84.

Martines, Lauro. Power and Imagination: City-States in Renaissance Italy. New York: Vintage Books, 1980.

Mead, W.R. “Ribe.” Economic Geography 17:2 (Apr., 1941): 195-203.

Miller, William. “The Zaccaria of Phocaea and Chios (1275-1329).” Journal of Hellenic Studies 31 (1911): 42-55.

Mott, Lawrence V. Sea Power in the Medieval Mediterranean: The Catalan-Aragonese Fleet in the War of the Sicilian Vespers. Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida, 2003.

Mott, Lawrence V. The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1997.

Oakley, Stewart. A Short History of Denmark. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972.

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Pérez-Mallaína, Pablo E. Spain’s Men of the Sea: Daily Life on the Indies Fleets in the Sixteenth Century. Translated by Carla Rahn Phillips. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Pirenne, Henri. Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1937.

Pryor, John H. “From Dromon to Galea: Mediterranean Bireme Galleys, ad 500-1300.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since Pre-Classical Times, edited by Robert Gardiner and John Morrison, 101-16. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

Pryor, John H. “Mediterranean Commerce in the Middle Ages: A Voyage under Contract of Commenda.Viator 14 (1983): 133-94.

Pryor, John H. “The Naval Battles of Roger of Lauria.” Journal of Medieval History 9 (1983): 179-216.

Pryor, John H., and Elizabeth M. Jeffreys, with Ahmad Shboul. The Age of the Dromon: The Byzantine Navy ca 500-1204. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Public Record Office. Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office. Henry IV. A.D. 1399-[1413]. London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1903-09.

Reilly, Bernard F. The Medieval Spains. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Reinert, Stephen W. “The Muslim Presence in Constantinople, 9th-15th Centuries: Some Preliminary Observations.” In Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire. Edited by Helene Ahrweiler and Angeliki E. Laiou, 125-150. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1998.

Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Crusades: A History. 2nd edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

Robert of Clari. The Conquest of Constantinople. Translated by Edgar Holmes McNeal. 1936. Reprint Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660-1649. New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.

Rodgers, W.L. Naval Warfare Under Oars 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1940.

Schildhauer, Johannes. The Hansa: History and Culture. Leipzig: Edition Leipzig, 1985.

Senior, William. “The Bucentaur.Mariner’s Mirror 15 (1929): 131-38.

Sherborne, J.W. “The Hundred Years’ War—The English Navy: Shipping and Manpower 1369-1389.” Past and Present 37 (1967): 163-75.

Sicking, Louis. “Amphibious Warfare in the Baltic: Holland, the Hansa and the Habsburgs (Fourteenth-Sixteenth Centuries).” In Amphibious Warfare 1000-1700: Commerce, State Formation and European Expansion, edited by Mark Charles Fissel and D.J.B. Trim, 69-101. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Spufford, Peter. Power and Profit: The Merchant in Medieval Europe. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002.

Sylvester, David G. “Communal Piracy in Medieval England’s Cinque Ports.” In Noble Ideals and Bloody Realities: Warfare in the Middle Ages, edited by Niall Christie and Maya Yazigi, 164-76. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Thompson, James Westfall. “Early Trade Relations between the Germans and the Slavs.” Journal of Political Economy 30:4 (Aug., 1922): 543-58.

Van Houtte, J.A. “The Rise and Decline of the Market of Bruges.” Economic History Review, n.s., 19:1 (1966): 29-47.

Villehardouin, Conquest of Constantinople. In Joinville and Villehardouin. Chronicles of the Crusades. Translated by Margaret R. B. Shaw. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963.

Wansbrough, John. “The Safe-Conduct in Muslim Chancery Practice.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 34: 1 (1971): 20-35.

William of Tyre. A History of Deeds Done beyond the Sea. 2 vols. Translated by Emily Atwater Babcock and A.C. Krey. 1941. Reprint New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976.

Williams, John Bryan. “The Making of a Crusade: The Genoese Anti-Muslim Attacks in Spain, 1146-1148.” Journal of Medieval History 23:1 (1997): 29-53.


Chapter 12: Maritime Asia, 1100–1500

Abd-er-Razzak. Narrative of the Journey of Abd-er-Razzak, Ambassador from Shah Rokh, a.h. 845, a.d.1442. In India in the Fifteenth Century, edited by Richard Henry Major, 1-49. London: Hakluyt Society, 1857.

Abdu-llah, Wassaf. Tazjiyatu-l Amsar Wa Tajriyatu-l Asar [A Ramble through the Regions and the Passing of Ages]. In The History of India as Told by its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, edited by H.M. Elliot and John Dowson, 8 vols., vol. 3, pp. 24-54. 1867-77. Reprint Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1964.

Andaya, Leonard Y. “A History of Trade in the Sea of Melayu,” Itinerario 24:1 (2000): 87-110.

Atwood, Christopher P. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York : Facts On File, 2004.

Aung-Thwin, Michael. The Mists of Ramañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005.

Aung-Thwin, Michael. Myth and History in the Historiography of Early Burma: Paradigms, Primary Sources, and Prejudices. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1998.

Benjamin of Tudela. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages.Malibu: J. Simon, 1983. Introductions by Michael A. Signer, 1983, Marcus Nathan Adler, 1907, A. Asher, 1840.

Blussé, Leonard. Visible Cities: Canton, Nagasaki, and Batavia and the Coming of the Americans. The Edwin O. Reischauer Lectures. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Chakravarti, Ranabir. “Early Medieval Bengal and the Trade in Horses: A Note.” Journal of the Economic & Social History of the Orient 42:2 (1999): 194-211.

Chakravarti, Ranabir. “Nakhudas and Navittakas: Shipowning Merchants in the West Coast of India (c. ad 1000-1500).” Journal of the Economic & Social History of the Orient 43:1 (2000): 35-64.

Chakravarti, Ranabir. “Overseas Trade in Horses in Early Medieval India: Shipping and Piracy.” In Praci-prabha: Perspective in Indology, edited by D.C. Bhattacharyya and Devendra Handa. Delhi: 1989.

Chau Ju-kua. Chau Ju-kua on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Translated by Frederick Hirth and W.W. Rockhill. 1911-1914. Reprint Amsterdam: Oriental Press, 1966.

Christie, Jan Wisseman. “Asian Sea Trade between the Tenth and Thirteen Centuries and its Impact on the States of Java and Bali.” In Archaeology of Seafaring: The Indian Ocean in the Ancient Period, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray, 221-70. Delhi: Pragati Publications, 1999.

Clark, Hugh R. “Muslims and Hindus in the Culture and Morphology of Quanzhou from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century.” Journal of World History 6:1 (1995): 49-74.

Conlan, Thomas D., trans. In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Takezaki Suenaga’s Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of Japan. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 2001.

Deng, Gang. Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development c. 2100 B.C.-1900 a.d. Westport: Greenwood, 1997.

Dreyer, Edward L. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming, 1405-1433. New York: Pearson-Longman, 2007.

Duyvendak, J.J.L. “The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century.” T’oung Pao 34 (1938): 341-412.

Ehrenkreutz, A.S. “The Place of Saladin in the Naval History of the Mediterranean Sea in the Middle Ages.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 72:2 (1955): 100-16.

Fairbank, John King, Edwin O. Reischauer, and Albert M. Craig. East Asia: Tradition and Transformation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973.

Forbes, A.D.W. “Southern Arabia and the Islamicisation of the Central Indian Archipelagoes.” Archipel 21 (1981): 55-92.

Gang Deng. Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. London: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Goitein, S.D. “The Beginnings of the Karim Merchants and the Nature of their Organization.” In Studies in Islamic History and Institutions, 351-60. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1966.

Goitein, S.D. “From Aden to India.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 21 (1980): 43-66.

Goitein, S.D. “Letters and Documents of the India Trade in Medieval Times.” In Studies in Islamic History and Institutions, 329-50. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1966.

Goitein, S.D. “Two Eyewitness Reports on an Expedition of the King of Kish (Qais) against Aden.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 16 (1954): 247-57.

Goitein, S.D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. 6 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983-99.

Green, J. N., and Zae Geun Kim. “The Shinan and Wando Sites, Korea: Further Information.” IJNA 18 (1989): 33-41.

Green, J. N. “The Song Dynasty Shipwreck at Quanzhou, Fujian Province, People’s Republic of China.” IJNA 12 (1983): 253-61.

Guy, John. “Tamil Merchant Guilds and the Quanzhou Trade.” In The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000-1400, edited by Angela Schottenhammer, 283-306. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Hall, Kenneth R. “Economic History of Early Southeast Asia.” In The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. 1, pt. 1, From Early Times to c. 1500. Edited by Nicholas Tarling, 183-275. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Hall, D.G.E. A History of South-East Asia. 3rd ed. New York: St, Martin’s, 1968.

Hall, Kenneth. Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. Honululu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Hamblin, William James. “The Fatimid Navy during the Early Crusades: 1099-1124.” American Neptune 46 (1986): 77-83.

Hirth, Frederick, and W.W. Rockhill Chau Ju-kua, trans. Chau Ju-kua on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. 1911-14. Reprint Amsterdam: Oriental Press, 1966.

Ibn Battuta. The Travels of Ibn Battuta, a.d.. 1325-1354. 5 vols. London: Hakluyt, 1958-2000.

Ibn Jubayr. The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. Translated by R.J.C. Broadhurst. London: Jonathan Cape, 1952.

Keith, Donald H., and Christian J. Buys. “New Light on Medieval Chinese Seagoing Ship Construction.” IJNA 10 (1981): 119-32.

Khalileh, Hassan S. Islamic Maritime Law: An Introduction. Studies in Islamic Law and Society, Vol. 5. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Kim, H. Edward, and Donald H. Keith. “A 14th-Century Cargo Makes Port at Last.” National Geographic (Aug. 1979): 230-43.

Kuwabara, Jitsuzo. “On P’u Shou-keng, a Man of the Western Regions, who was Superintendent of the Trading Ships Office in Ch’uan-chou towards the end of the Sung Dynasty.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library) 2 (1928): 1-79, and 7 (1933): 1-104.

Lane, Frederic C. “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass.” 1963. Reprinted in Venice and History: The Collected Papers of Frederic C. Lane, 331-44. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.

Li Guo-Qing. “Arabic Documents from the Red Sea Port of Quseir in the Seventh/Thirteenth Century. Part I: Business Letters.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 58:3 (1999): 161-90.

Li Guo-Qing. “Archaeological Evidence for the Use of ‘Chu-Nam’ on the 13th-Century Quanzhou Ship, Fujian Province, China.” IJNA 18 (1989): 277-83.

Lo Jung-Pang. “Chinese Shipping and East-West Trade from the Tenth to the Fourteenth Century.” In Sociétés et compagnies de commerce en Orient et dans l’océan Indien: actes du huitième Colloque international d’histoire maritime (Beyrouth, 5-10 septembre 1966), edited by Michel Mollat, 167-75. Paris, S.E.V.P.E.N., 1970.

Lo Jung-Pang. “Controversy over Grain Conveyance during the Reign of Qubilai Qaqn, 1260-94.” Far Eastern Quarterly 13:3 (1954): 262-85.

Lo Jung-pang. “The Decline of the Early Ming Navy.” Oriens Extremus. 5 (1958): 149-68.

Lo Jung-pang. “The Termination of the Early Ming Naval Expeditions.” In Papers in Honour of Professor Woodbridge Bingham, a Festchrift for his Seventy-Fifth Birthday, edited by James B. Parson. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1976.

Ma Huan. Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean’s Shores [1433]. Translated by J.V.G. Mills. 1970. Reprint Bangkok: White Lotus, 1997.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “Trading Ships of the South China Sea.” JESHO 36:3 (1993): 253-280.

Merwin, Douglas. “Selections from Wen-wu on the Excavation of a Sung Dynasty Seagoing Vessel in Ch’üan-chou.” Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 9 (Spring 1977).

Mukherjee, B.N. The Economic Factors in Kushana History. Calcutta: Pilgrim Publishers, 1970.

Needham, Joseph, with Wang Ling and Kenneth Robinson. Science and Civilization in China. Vol. 4, Physics and Physical Technology. Pt. 1, Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962.

Needham, Joseph, with Wang Ling and Lu Gwei-djen. Science and Civilization in China. Vol. 4, Physics and Physical Technology. Pt. 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Needham, Joseph, et al. Science and Civilisation in China. Vol. 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Pt. 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Odoric of Pordenone. The Travels of Friar Odoric. Translated by Henry Yule. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2002.

Peterson, Charles A. “Old Illusions and New Realities: Sung Foreign Policy, 1217-1234.” In China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors 10th-14th Centuries, edited by Morris Rossabi, 204-39. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Polo, Marco. The Travels. Translated by Ronald Latham. New York: Penguin Books, 1958.

Reid, Anthony. “The Rise and Fall of Sino-Javanese Shipping.” In Charting the Shape of Early Modern Southeast Asia, 56-84. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 1999.

Reid, Anthony. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450-1680: Expansion and Crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Reid, Anthony. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450-1680: The Lands Below the Winds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Rockhill, W.W. “Notes on the Relations and Trade of China with the Eastern Archipelago and the Coast of the Indian Ocean during the Fourteenth Century.” Toung Pao 14 (1913): 471-76; Part I, Toung Pao 15 (1914): 419-47; Part 2, Toung Pao 16 (1915): 64-159, 236-71, 374-92, 435-67, 604-26.

Rossabi, Morris. Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Sakamaki, Shunzo. “The Heike: From Defeat at Dannoura to a Golden Age in Ryukyu?” Journal of Asian Studies 27:1 (1967): 155-22.

Schottenhammer, Angela. “The Maritime Trade of Quanzhou (Zaitun) from the Ninth through the Thirteenth Century.” In Archaeology of Seafaring: The Indian Ocean in the Ancient Period, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray, 271-90. Delhi: Pragati Publications, 1999.

Schurmann, Herbert Franz. Economic Structure of the Yüan Dynasty: Translation of Chapter 93 and 94 of the Yüan Shih. Harvard-Yenching Institute Studies 16. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Sedyawati, Edi. “The State Formation of Kadiri.” In State and Trade in the Indonesian Archipelago, edited by G.J. Schutte, 7-16. Leiden: KITLV, 1994.

Serjeant, R.B. “Yemeni Merchants and Trade in Yemen, 13th-16th Centuries.” In Society and Trade in South Arabia, edited by G. Rex Smith, I:61-82. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashfield, 1996.

Sewell, Robert. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A Contribution to the History of India. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1982.

Sleeswyck, André Wegener. “The Liao and the Displacement of Ships in the Ming Navy.” Mariner’s Mirror 82:1 (Feb. 1996): 3-13.

Souyri, Pierre Francois, translated by Kathe Roth. The World Turned Upside Down: Medieval Japanese Society. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Stern, S.M. “Ramisht of Siraf: A Merchant Millionaire of the Twelfth Century.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2nd ser. (1967): 10-14.

Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. “Of Imarat and Tijarat: Asian Merchants and State Power in the Western Indian Ocean, 1400 to 1750.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 37:4. (1995): 750-80.

Taylor, Keith W. “The Early Kingdoms.” In The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. 1, pt. 1, From Early Times to c. 1500. Edited by Nicholas Tarling, 137-82. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Tibbetts, G.R. Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean Before the Coming of the Portuguese. Being a translation of Kitab al-Fawa’id fi usul al-bahr wa’l-qawa’id of Ahmad b. Majid al-Najdi. London: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1971.

Tibbetts, G.R. A Study of the Arabic Texts Containing Material on South-East Asia. Leiden: Brill, 1979.

Verschuer, Charlotte von. Across the Perilous Sea: Japanese trade with China and Korea from the Seventh to the Sixteenth Centuries. Translated by Kristen Lee Hunter. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 2006.

Wake, C.H.H. “Changing Pattern of Europe’s Pepper and Spice Imports, ca. 1400-1700.” Journal of European Economic History 8:2 (1979): 361-404.

Wang Gungwu. “‘Public’ and ‘Private’ Overseas Trade in Chinese History.” 1970. Reprinted in China and the Chinese Overseas, 129-43. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2003.

Wang Gungwu. “Merchants without Empires: The Hokkien Sojourning Communities.” 1990. Reprinted in China and the Chinese Overseas, 87-111. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2003.

Wicks, Robert S. Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The Development of indigenous Monetary Systems to ad 1400. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, 1992.

Wilson, Arnold T. The Persian Gulf: An Historical Sketch from the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954.

Wink, André. Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Vol. 2. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th-13th Centuries. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1996.

Winstedt, Richard, and P.E. De Josselin de Jong. “The Maritime Laws of Malacca.” Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 29:3 (1956): 22-59.

Wolters, O.W. Early Indonesian Commerce. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967.

Yule, Henry, trans. and ed. Cathay and the Way Thither. New edition, revised by Henri Cordier. Vol. 3, Letters and Reports of Missionary Friars from Cathay and India, 1292-1338, etc. London: Hakluyt Society, 1914.



Chapter 13: The World Encompassed, 15th-16th Centuries

Abulafia, David. “Commerce and the Kingdom of Majorca, 1150-1450.” In Iberia and the Mediterranean World of the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of Robert I. Burns S.J., vol. 2: Proceedings from “Spain and the Western Mediterranean”, edited by Paul E. Chevedden, Donald J. Kagay and Paul G. Padilla. Leiden: Brill, 345-77.

Abulafia, David. “Neolithic Meets Medieval: First Encounters in the Canary Islands.” In Medieval Frontiers: Concepts and Practices, edited by David Abulafia, pp. 173-94. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

Camoens, Luis Vaz de. The Lusiads. Translated by William C. Atkinson. 1952. Reprint Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973.

Casas, Bartolomé de Las. Las Casas on Columbus: Background and the Second and Fourth Voyages. Translated by Nigel Griffin. Repertorium Columbianum 7. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1999.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales. Translated by Nevill Coghill. New York: Penguin, 1975.

Colon, Fernando. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand. Translated by Benjamin Keen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1959.

Crone, G. R., ed. and trans. The Voyages of Cadamosto and Other Documents on Western Africa in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century. London: Hakluyt Society, 1937.

Davenport, Frances Gardiner, ed. European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917.

Diffie, Bailey W., and George D. Winius. Foundations of the Portuguese Empire 1415-1580. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Elbl, Martin. “The Caravel.” In Cogs, Caravels and Galleons, edited by Richard W. Unger, 91-98. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1994.

Ellmers, Detlev. “The Cog as Cargo Carrier.” In Cogs, Caravels and Galleons, edited by Richard W. Unger, 29-46. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1994.

Epstein, Steven A. Genoa and the Genoese, 958-1528. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. Amerigo: The Man Who Gave His Name to America. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2006.

Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonization from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic 1229-1492. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.

Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. Columbus. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. “Medieval Atlantic Exploration: The Evidence of the Maps.” In Portugal, the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval Towards the Modern World 1300-ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, 40-70. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. “Spanish Atlantic Voyages and Conquests before Columbus.” In Maritime History. Vol. I, The Age of Discovery, edited by John B. Hattendorf, 137-47. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger Publishing, 1996.

Friel, Ian. “The Carrack.” In Cogs, Caravels and Galleons, edited by Richard W. Unger, 77-90. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1994.

Greenlee, William Brooks, ed. and trans. The Voyage of Pedro Alvares Cabral to Brazil and India, from Contemporary Documents and Narratives. London: Hakluyt Society, 1938.

Jados, Stanley S. Consulate of the Sea, and Related Documents. University, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1975.

Jane, Cecil, ed. Select Documents Illustrating the Four Voyages of Columbus. 2 vols. London: Hakluyt Society, 1930-33.

Jonkers, A.R.T. “Sailing Directions.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History, edited by John Hattendorf, 3:457-63. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Linden, H. Vander. “Alexander VI and the Demarcation of the Maritime and Colonial Domains of Spain and Portugal, 1493-1494.” American Historical Review 22:1 (1916): 1-20.

Mancke, Elizabeth. “Oceanic Space and the Creation of a Global International System, 1450-1800.” In Maritime History as World History, edited by Daniel Finamore. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.

Mitchell, Mairin. Friar Andrés de Urdaneta, O.S.A. London: Macdonald and Evans, 1964.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages, A.D. 500-1600. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Nader, Helen. Rights of Discovery: Christopher Columbus’s Final Appeal to King Fernando. Facsimile, Transcription, Translation and Critical Edition of the John Carter Brown Library’s Spanish Codex I. Cali/Providence: Carvajal S.A./John Carter Brown Library, 1992.

Northrup, David. Africa’s Discovery of Europe: 1450-1850. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Paselk, Richard A. “Navigational Instruments: Measurement of Altitude.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History, edited by John Hattendorf, 3:29-42. New York; Oxford University Press, 2007.

Perruso, Richard. “The Development of the Doctrine of Res Communes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.” Tijdschrift voor Rechstgeschiedenis 70 (2002): 69-93.

Phillips, Carla Rahn. “Iberian Ships and Shipbuilding in the Age of Discovery.” In Maritime History. Vol. 1, The Age of Discovery, edited by John B. Hattendorf, 215-38. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger Publishing, 1996.

Phillips, William D., Jr., and Carla Rahn Phillips. The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Pigafetta, Antonio. The First Voyage Around the World (1519-1522): An Account of Magellan’s Expedition. Translated by Theodore J. Cachey, Jr. New York: Marsilio Publishers, 1995.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History. 10 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938-63.

Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas His Pilgrimes, Contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and Others. 20 vols. 1625. Reprint Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons, 1905-1907.

Radulet, Carmen. “Vasco da Gama and His Successors.” In Portugal, the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval Towards the Modern World 1300-ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, 133-43. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Russell, P.E. Prince Henry “the Navigator.” New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Soucek, Svat. “Piri Reis and Ottoman Discovery of the Great Discoveries.” Studia Islamica 79 (1994): 121-42.

Spufford, Peter. Power and Profit: The Merchant in Medieval Europe. London: Thames & Hudson, 2003.

Stanley, Henry Edward John Stanley, ed. The First Voyage Round the World by Magellan.

Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Taylor, E. G. R. The Haven-Finding Art: A History of Navigation from Odysseus to Captain Cook. New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1957.

Tibbetts, G.R. Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean before the Coming of the Portuguese, Being a Translation of Kitab al-Fawa’id fi Usul al-Bahr wa’l-Qawa’id. London: The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1981.

Twiss, Sir Travers, ed. Black Book of the Admiralty. Monumenta Juridical: the Black Book of the Admiralty: with an appendix. London: Longman, 1871-1965.

Verlinden, Charles. “The Big Leap under Dom João II: From the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.” In Maritime History Vol. 1, The Age of Discovery, edited by John B. Hattendorf. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger Publ., 1996.

Verlinden, Charles. “European Participation in the Portuguese Era of Discovery.” In Portugal, the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval Towards the Modern World 1300-ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, 71-88. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Winius, George D. “The Enterprise Focused on India: The Work of D. João II.” In Portugal, the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval Towards the Modern World 1300-ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, 89-120. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Winius, George D. “The Estado da India on the Subcontinent: Portuguese as Players on a South Asian Stage.” In Portugal the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval toward the Modern World, 1300-ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, . Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Winius, George D. “Portugal’s shadow empire in the Bay of Bengal.” In Portugal the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval toward the Modern World, 1300-ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, . Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Woodward, David. “Medieval Mappaemundi.” In The History of Cartography. Vol. I, Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, edited by J.B. Harley and David Woodward, 286-370. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Chapter 14: Remote Maritime Traditions

Adney, Tappan, and Howard Chapelle. The Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1964.

Allaire, Louis. “Archaeology of the Caribbean Region,” in The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of America, vol. 3, South America, pt. 1, edited by Frank Salomon and Stuart B. Schwartz, 668-733. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Ames, Kenneth M. “Going by Boat: The Forager-Collector Continuum at Sea.” In Beyond Foraging and Collecting: Evolution and Change in Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems, edited by Ben Fitzhugh and Junko Habu, 19-52. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 2002.

Arnold, Jeanne E. and Julienne Bernard. “Negotiating the Coasts: Status and the Evolution of Boat Technology in California.” World Archaeology 37:1 (March 2005): 109-31.

Beckwith, Martha. Hawaiian Mythology. 1940. Reprint Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1970.

Buck, Peter (Te Rangi Hiroa). The Coming of the Maori. Wellington, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1950.

Callaghan, Richard T. “Prehistoric Trade between Ecuador and West Mexico: A Computer Simulation of Coastal Voyages.” Antiquity 77:298 (2003): 796-804.

Carvajal, Gaspar de. The Discovery of the Amazon according to the Account of Friar Gaspar de Carvajal and Other Documents. Introduction by José Toribio Medina; translated by Bertram T. Lee; edited by H. C. Heaton. New York: American Geographical Society, 1934.

Chapelle, Howard, “Arctic Skin Boats.” In The Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North America, by Tappan Adney and Howard Chapelle, 174-211. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1964.

Coe, Michael D. “Archaeological Linkages with North and South America at La Victoria, Guatemala.” American Anthropologist n.s. 62 (1960): 363-93.

Colon, Fernando. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand. Translated by Benjamin Keen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1959.

Cook, James. The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery. Edited by J. C. Beaglehole. 4 vols. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1955-74.

Davenport, Demorest, John R. Johnson and Jan Timbrook. “The Chumash and the Swordfish.” Antiquity 67 (1993): 257-72.

DeVoto, Bernard, ed. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Dunmore, John, ed. The Pacific Journal of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 1767-1768. London: Hakluyt Society, 2002.

Edwards, Clinton R. Aboriginal Watercraft on the Pacific Coast of South America. Ibero-Americana: 47. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1965.

Epstein, Jeremiah F. “Sails in Aboriginal Mesoamerica: Reevaluating Thompson’s Argument.” American Anthropologist 92:1 (1990): 187-92.

Fladmark, Knut. “Routes: Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America.” American Antiquity 44:1 (1979): 55-69.

Genz, Joseph H. “Oceania: Polynesian and Micronesian Navigation.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History, edited by John Hattendorf, 3:144-54. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Hornell, James. Water Transport Origins and Early Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1946.

Horridge, Adrian. “The Story of Pacific Canoes and Their Rigs.” In From Buckfast to Borneo: Essays Presented to Father Robert Nicholl on the 85th Anniversary of his Birth, 27 March 1995, edited by Victor T. King and A.V.M. Horton, 541-58. Hull: Center for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull, 1995.

Hudson, Travis, Janice Timbrook, and Melissa Rempe. Tomol: Chumash Watercraft as Described in the Ethnographic Notes of John P. Harrington. Socorro, N.M.: Ballena Press, 1978.

Irwin, Geoffrey. The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonization of the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Kirch, Patrick Vinton. On the Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands before European Contact. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Lewis, David. We, the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific. 2nd ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.

Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.

Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.

McGrail, Sean. Boats of the World from the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

McPhee, John A. The Survival of the Bark Canoe. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1975.

Moseley, Michael E. “The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: An Evolving Hypothesis.” http://www.hallofmaat.com/modules.php?name=Articles&file=article&sid=85

Moseley, Michael Edward. The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Moseley, Michael Edward. The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization. Menlo Park, Calif.: Cummings Publishing, 1975. Orono F3429 M85

Paine, Lincoln P. Down East: A Maritime History of Maine. Gardiner: Tilbury House, 2000.

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of Discovery and Exploration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Paulsen, Allison C. “The Thorny Oyster and the Voice of God: Spondylus and Strombus in Andean Prehistory.” American Antiquity 39:4 (1974): 597-607.

Quinn, David B., and Alison M. Quinn. The English New England Voyages, 1602-1608. London: Hakluyt Society, 1983.

Shimada, Izumi. “Evolution of Andean Diversity: Regional Formations (500 b.c.e.-c.e. 600). In The Cambridge History of the Native People of the Americas, vol. 3, South America, pt. 1, edited by Frank Salomon and Stuart B. Schwartz, 350-517. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Smith, Anita. “The Need for Lapita: Explaining Change in the Late Holocene Pacific Archaeological Record.” World Archaeology 26:3 (1993): 366-79.

Snow, Dean R. “The First Americans and the Differentiation of Hunter-Gatherer Culture.” In The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the New World, edited by B.G. Trigger and W. Washburn, chap. 4. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Stanish, Charles. “The Origin of State Societies in South America.” Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (2001): 41-64.

Walker, Ranginui. Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End. Revised Auckland: Penguin Books, 2004.

Zeidler, James A. “Maritime Exchange in the Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador: Geopolitical Origins, Uneven Development.” Research in Economic Anthropology 13 (1991): 247-68.


Chapter 15: The Birth of Global Trade in the Fifteenth Century

Albuquerque, Afonso de. The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque, Second Viceroy of India. Translated by Walter de Gray Birch. 4 vols. London: Hakluyt Society, 1880.

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